# Simple Helmholtz equation
# =========================
#
# Let's start by considering the modified Helmholtz equation on a unit square,
# :math:`\Omega`, with boundary :math:`\Gamma`:
#
# .. math::
#
# -\nabla^2 u + u &= f
#
# \nabla u \cdot \vec{n} &= 0 \quad \textrm{on}\ \Gamma
#
# for some known function :math:`f`. The solution to this equation will
# be some function :math:`u\in V`, for some suitable function space
# :math:`V`, that satisfies these equations. Note that this is the
# Helmholtz equation that appears in meteorology, rather than the
# indefinite Helmholtz equation :math:`\nabla^2 u + u = f` that arises
# in wave problems.
#
# We transform the equation into weak form by multiplying by an arbitrary
# test function in :math:`V`, integrating over the domain and then
# integrating by parts. The variational problem so derived reads: find
# :math:`u \in V` such that:
#
# .. math::
#
# \require{cancel}
# \int_\Omega \nabla u\cdot\nabla v + uv\ \mathrm{d}x = \int_\Omega
# vf\ \mathrm{d}x + \cancel{\int_\Gamma v \nabla u \cdot \vec{n} \mathrm{d}s}
#
# Note that the boundary condition has been enforced weakly by removing
# the surface term resulting from the integration by parts.
#
# We can choose the function :math:`f`, so we take:
#
# .. math::
#
# f = (1.0 + 8.0\pi^2)\cos(2\pi x)\cos(2\pi y)
#
# which conveniently yields the analytic solution:
#
# .. math::
#
# u = \cos(2\pi x)\cos(2\pi y)
#
# However we wish to employ this as an example for the finite element
# method, so lets go ahead and produce a numerical solution.
#
# First, we always need a mesh. Let's have a :math:`10\times10` element unit square::
from firedrake import *
mesh = UnitSquareMesh(10, 10)
# We need to decide on the function space in which we'd like to solve the
# problem. Let's use piecewise linear functions continuous between
# elements::
V = FunctionSpace(mesh, "CG", 1)
# We'll also need the test and trial functions corresponding to this
# function space::
u = TrialFunction(V)
v = TestFunction(V)
# We declare a function over our function space and give it the
# value of our right hand side function::
f = Function(V)
x, y = SpatialCoordinate(mesh)
f.interpolate((1+8*pi*pi)*cos(x*pi*2)*cos(y*pi*2))
# We can now define the bilinear and linear forms for the left and right
# hand sides of our equation respectively::
a = (dot(grad(v), grad(u)) + v * u) * dx
L = f * v * dx
# Finally we solve the equation. We redefine `u` to be a function
# holding the solution::
u = Function(V)
# Since we know that the Helmholtz equation is
# symmetric, we instruct PETSc to employ the conjugate gradient method::
solve(a == L, u, solver_parameters={'ksp_type': 'cg'})
# For more details on how to specify solver parameters, see the section
# of the manual on :doc:`solving PDEs <../solving-interface>`.
#
# Next, we might want to look at the result, so we output our solution
# to a file::
File("helmholtz.pvd").write(u)
# This file can be visualised using `paraview `__.
#
# We could use the built-in plotting functions of firedrake by calling
# :func:`tripcolor ` to make a pseudo-color plot.
# Before that, matplotlib.pyplot should be installed and imported::
try:
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
except:
warning("Matplotlib not imported")
try:
fig, axes = plt.subplots()
colors = tripcolor(u, axes=axes)
fig.colorbar(colors)
except Exception as e:
warning("Cannot plot figure. Error msg: '%s'" % e)
# The plotting functions in Firedrake mimic those of matplotlib; to produce a
# contour plot instead of a pseudocolor plot, we can call
# :func:`tricontour ` instead::
try:
fig, axes = plt.subplots()
contours = tricontour(u, axes=axes)
fig.colorbar(contours)
except Exception as e:
warning("Cannot plot figure. Error msg: '%s'" % e)
# Don't forget to show the image::
try:
plt.show()
except Exception as e:
warning("Cannot show figure. Error msg: '%s'" % e)
# Alternatively, since we have an analytic solution, we can check the
# :math:`L_2` norm of the error in the solution::
f.interpolate(cos(x*pi*2)*cos(y*pi*2))
print(sqrt(assemble(dot(u - f, u - f) * dx)))
# A python script version of this demo can be found `here `__.